Presentation Proposals for GLoCALL 2021

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Title Review Type Main presenter Abstract
318-P 600 The Impact of Infographics on Saudi EFL Learners’ Vocabulary Learning %
Paper (25 minutes) Ms. Amjaad Alwadei

Visual materials have been examined in L2 literature to  see their affordances to aid second language vocabulary acquisition. However, little is known  about the impact of infographics on vocabulary learning. The current study was designed to explore the impact of infographics on vocabulary learning and retention among EFL learners. The study adopts a quasi-experimental two-group pretest-posttest  design. To this end, Saudi female college students took part in this study, in which the experimental group  was taught vocabulary using infographics while the control group was taught using the  traditional way of instruction. Inforgraphic materials were designed to teach the students' course. Recognition knowledge of vocabulary was assessed using two  tests: word definition and word grammatical measures which were administered before intervention, immediately after the learning sessions completion, and at a delayed time. An oral interview was used to gauge the learners’ production knowledge. Moreover, questionnaire was utilized to explore the learners’ perceptions  toward using infographics for learning vocabulary. The findings of study showed  that the treatment group significantly outscored the control group in vocabulary  recognition knowledge and the vocabulary production knowledge over the immediate and  long run. Further, participants in the experimental group showed high perceived usefulness of learning with infographics. 

404-V 602 Speaking Performance and Anxiety Levels of Chinese EFL Learners in Face-to-Face and Synchoronous Voice-Based Chat %
Virtual presentation Ms. Yanqiu Chen
With the advanced development in mobile technology, there is a need to explore the potential of synchronous voice chats (SVC) operated within a mobile-assisted environment using mobile instant messaging apps. This study aimed to compare the speaking performance of Chinese EFL learners in both synchronous voice-based chat and face-to-face chat modes and explore the relationship between learners’ speaking performance and anxiety levels in these two chat modes which allow real-time communication. In this mixed methods study, WeChat instant messaging was used as the platform for synchronous voice-based chat (SVC). Forty students from a public university in China participated in 4 chat sessions in SVC and F2F chat modes over 4 weeks. Quantitative data were collected through the oral scores of the participants’ performance in the chat sessions and anxiety questionnaires. Then, qualitative data were obtained from a focus group interview. The findings revealed a significant difference in learners’ speaking performance in SVC and F2F chat. Students’ speaking performance outperformed in SVC chat compared to F2F chat. This could be linked to students’ anxiety levels which were slightly higher in F2F chat. Despite that, most of the students preferred F2F chat to SVC chat due to the practicality of F2F chat.
227-P 603 Using speech videos of learners of Korean for pedagogical purposes in Japan %
Paper (25 minutes) Ms. Yasuko Okada
Viewing videos of their own and their peers’ speeches allows learners to reflect on their performance in a target language and to learn from their peers. This pilot study examined how videos helped Japanese learners gain awareness of their and their peers’ performances in speaking Korean to enhance their speaking performance. The participants were ten first-year and six second-year female students learning Korean at a two-year college. The former students gave a short prepared speech about their own experiences, and their performances were recorded to reflect their performances. The latter students gave two prepared speeches, both of which were recorded to compare differences in their performance. To understand the effectiveness of the viewing, an open-ended questionnaire was administered online, and responses were analyzed using mixed methods. The findings revealed that video watching created a positive learning environment for the first-year students, whereas comparing videos at two points contributed to an increase in second-year students’ awareness of their speech. Our results imply that the viewing of student speech videos is beneficial for learners of any language to make their progress visible.
304-P 611 How Does a Tutoring Lesson Work for a Writer? Focusing on Writing Structure and Lexical Use via Reference Tools %
Paper (25 minutes) Mr. Chien Chih Chen

  The study examines how a tutoring lesson works for a writer. Specifically, the writer’s writing structure and lexical use via reference tools were looked into to see what changes he has made after the lesson. The participant was a Ph. D. student enrolling in a TESOL theory course. To help him with his writing and carry out data collection, five tutorial lessons were given, followed by a semi-structured interview each time. Five short essays plus a short research paper were built as a writing corpus. The interviews were transcribed and his writings were analyzed. The findings suggest that the learner made progress in terms of his writing structure, though he manifested a progressive and regressive pattern in the process. He was able to use words more appropriately with the ability to use a wider range of reference tools.

231-P 612 University Students perception on the use of online based technology in flipped classrooms %
Paper (25 minutes) Ms. Shana Mat Salleh

This study explores the experiences and perceptions of 59 first year university students on flipped learning systems, over the course of one semester. The students carried out three separate sessions of flipped methodology classes, utilising a variety of online tools for teaching and communicating with each other. The types of flipped methodologies used were mixed to accommodate different learning styles. Primarily, the rotation model was used interspersed with the standard inverted classrooms to allow for a more discussion-based conclusion to the sessions. Results indicated that while the students had very little prior knowledge and experience on flipped classroom, they were generally positive in their initial perception of the learning strategy. Furthermore, over the period of the semester, the students fully embraced the entire process albeit with some apprehension regarding their peer’s motivation and efficiency in conducting the flipped sessions. A pre-sessional survey was conducted at the start of the semester as well as post-sessional surveys after each flipped session to gauge any particular changes in the students’ perceptions throughout the study. The overall findings showed positive reception from the students regarding flipped classroom with notable mentions of improved confidence and the development of active learning approaches.

224-P 615 Lexical and syntactic complexity in L2 writing: Within-genre topic effect and L1 backgrounds %
Paper (25 minutes) Prof. Myung Jeong Ha
This study explores cross-linguistic influence (CLI) and topic effects on the lexical and syntactic complexity in second language (L2) learners’ writing. The present study analyzes a corpus of argumentative essays written by EFL learners of English with the aim to examine changes in syntactic and lexical dimensions of complexity across different topics and L1 backgrounds. The written module of the International Corpus Network of Asian Learners of English (ICNALE) is adopted in this study (Ishikawa, 2013). The ICNALE is the corpus of argumentative essays written by college-level Asian learners of English from 10 countries. These essays are analyzed using 10 syntactic complexity measures with the L2 Syntactic Complexity Analyzer (Lu, 2010). After the lexical and syntactic complexity indices are obtained, a two-way repeated-measures MANOVA with topic as a within- subjects variable and L1 as a between-subjects variable are conducted. For main and interaction effects with statistical significance, univariate analyses are performed to identify each of the dependent variables (complexity measures) significantly influenced by the predictors. The results of these analyses will be discussed in depth in terms of previous arguments about the relationship of lexical and syntactic complexity in L2 writing to topic effect and L1 backgrounds.
236-P 617 The use of flipped classroom in a higher education setting: students’ perspectives %
Paper (25 minutes) Dr. Kok Yueh Lee

This study investigates students’ perceptions and attitudes on the use of flipped classroom in a higher education institution in Brunei. Twenty-four first year students undertaking Professional Communication module took part in the flipped classroom exercise. Three flipped classroom sessions were conducted over 14 weeks. All students had to study the course materials and do research prior to the classes. A pre-questionnaire was administered at the start of the semester to investigate students’ knowledge towards flipped classroom. Three post-questionnaires were subsequently delivered after each exercise to investigate the students’ experiences with the flipped classroom. Prior to the exercise, majority of the students (93%) have not heard of flipped classroom. All students have used various means of online learning resources although they were somewhat indifferent towards the use of technology as part of their learning. The findings showed that most students expressed positive attitudes towards flipped classroom as it encouraged collaboration, motivation and allowed students to learn at their own pace, promoting independent learning. Whilst it is conclusive the flipped classroom exercise is favourable in the present study, it may not be suitable for all learning or subjects in higher education contexts having to factor in the course contents and learning outcomes. 

206-P 618 Investigating ESL learners’ online collaborative processes and perceptions of using Google Docs in collaborative writing %
Paper (25 minutes) Dr. Azlin Zaiti ZAINAL

This study aims to investigate the processes of learners’ collaborative writing using Google Docs and their perceptions of the collaborative process. Twenty-four undergraduate ESL learners undertaking an academic writing course participated in this study. They were tasked with a paired writing assignment as part of the coursework. Google Docs was used by each pair in revising their drafts before they submitted the final version of their academic essay. Adopting a mixed-methods approach, the qualitative phase involved conducting a textual analysis based on the drafts that the students prepared. The categories used to analyse the revisions were adapted from Kessler, Bikowski and Boggs (2012) analytical categories to understand the focus of learners’ revisions. Students’ responses to an online survey administered at the end of the course formed the quantitative data.  The findings provide insights into the processes of collaborative online writing and students’ perceived usefulness of Google Docs as a tool for collaboration. The implications on the design of online writing tasks will be discussed.  

228-P 623 Language learning in immersive virtual reality: An exploratory study of Chinese college nursing students in a simulated operating room %
Paper (25 minutes) Dr. Junjie Gavin Wu
As an emerging technology, virtual reality (VR) is now being used in education, particularly with STEM-related learning. However, as with all pedagogical innovation, there is a lack of empirical research on the application of VR in situations where students are using it with their second language (L2) and existing studies generally rely on the use of non-immersive VR tools. This paper is one step in a process of understanding the affordances and constraints of a fully immersive VR system in facilitating language learning for English as a Foreign Language (EFL) nurses. The results of a small-scale study suggested that learners appreciated the different features of VR, which enhanced the integration of virtuality, reality, and mentality. In addition, mediating factors of this VR learning experience were discussed based on the data set. Informed by the current findings, the paper puts forward suggestions for designing VR-supported language learning, which hopefully sheds some light on the complex nature of the effective use of VR in learning.
302-P 624 Mapping reading profiles of basic readers to CEFR reading standards based on oculomotor behaviour observations %
Paper (25 minutes) Mr. Warid Mihat
Past studies suggested that understanding the congruency between readers’ reading behaviours and target reading outcomes is imperative in improving students’ reading proficiency. This research, therefore, aims to evaluate the aligned reading standards through the reading profiles developed based on oculomotor behaviour observations. In an attempt to develop comprehensive reading profiles of basic readers in Malaysia, this research approaches this issue with a new perspective through the eye-mind hypothesis (EMH). Towards this end, eighty 12-year-old participants were identified as basic readers through the Key English Test (KET) and divided systematically into two groups to reflect different reading purposes: 1. expeditious reading group and 2. careful reading group. 3-phase mixed methods evaluation design is employed in the research methodology. The first phase observes participants’ oculomotor behaviours when they read narrative, expository, and infographic texts using an eye tracker Tobi-Pro Glasses 100 Hz. Next, phase two identifies arising themes in phase 1 for reading profiles development. Concurrently, phase two also identifies types of basic readers through cluster analysis and gaze-plot recording observations. Finally, phase three of this study evaluates the aligned reading standards by mapping it to the reading profiles developed earlier. The findings revealed a profile of nine characteristics that describe the basic readers in the Malaysian context: 1. fixation durations per word are similar across different texts, 2. do rereading at the micro-level, 3. show multidimensional relationship across sentence types, 4. skip information and text features, 5. make double fixation at short content and function words, 6. make desegmentation between sentences, 7. influenced by pathological schemata, 8. gain benefits from spending longer time processing information, and 9. require exposure towards different reading tasks. This study found three new elements that should be added to the reading standards through the mapping process. These elements include readers being able to navigate on all information in the text, reconfirm their understanding, and read for different purposes.